Tuesday, May 19, 2020

2 Forms of the Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish

Why are there two forms of the imperfect subjunctive, such as hablara and hablase? Do they mean the same thing? The -se form might be considered the traditional form of the imperfect (or past) subjunctive, while the -ra comes from an old Latin indicative form. Over time, the two verb forms came to be used identically. Today, with a few regional exceptions, the -ra form has basically replaced the -se form, and so it is the -ra form you should learn. When used as the imperfect subjunctive, the two forms are interchangeable. The -se form is sometimes known as a literary form because it is used much less, but there is no difference in meaning. Examples of the Imperfect Subjunctive in Use, Showing the -ra  Form Si fuera fà ¡cil yo tocarà ­a el piano. (If it were easy I would play the piano.)Espero que à ©l estudiara con cuidado. (I hope he studied carefully.)Le prohibieron que utilizara las redes sociales. (They prohibited her from using social networks.) There are ​very few cases where the use of the -ra form as an indicative verb form has survived in modern Spanish, although you will seldom hear them. In some parts of Latin America as well as some areas near Portugal, you may hear the -ra form substitute for the pluperfect (e.g., fuera instead of habà ­a sido to say had been). There are some speakers who use the -ra form of haber as a substitute for the conditional, that is hubiera conocido instead of habrà ­a conocido for would have known; that usage can also be found occasionally in literature. In these rare cases where the -ra form is used instead of the conditional, the -se form cant be used as a substitute for the conditional. It isnt important to learn these variations, but it can be helpful to remember they exist in case you come across them. The -ra  Conjugation Pattern for Regular Verbs -ar verbs: que yo hablara, que tà º hablaras, que usted/à ©l/ella hablara, que nosotros hablà ¡ramos, que vosotros hablarais, que ustedes/ellos/ellas hablaran.-er verbs: que yo aprendiera, que tà º aprendieras, que usted/à ©l/ella aprendiera, que nosotros aprendià ©ramos, que aprendierais, que ustedes/ellos/ellas aprendieran.-ir verbs: que yo viviera, que tà º vivieras, que usted/à ©l/ella viviera, que nosotros vivià ©ramos, que vosotros vivierais, que ustedes/ellos/ellas vivieran.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Benefits Of Functional Aerobic Exercise - 1624 Words

CrossFit is a program created to provide a full body workout to prepare the body for everyday activities and the unexpected. CrossFit is constantly varied functional movements performed at a high intensity. Millions of people across the globe participate in this high intensity fitness regimen every day. CrossFit exercises consists of performing many simple movements that make up one complex movement. These movements are based on movements that we perform in our everyday lives. The base of all of the complex movements is the core, so it is important to have good core stability. To achieve a successful workout and improve one’s physical well-being, one must train under the ten major fitness domains: cardiovascular and respiratory endurance, stamina, strength, flexibility, power, speed, coordination, agility, balance, and accuracy. Crossfit is a very intense fitness program that results in many benefits from functional exercising, and nutrition. There are many benefits of functio nal exercising. Functional exercises are exercises that train parts of the body to make everyday activities easier. In a study conducted in 2014 by the CDC 69% of American adults are overweight and about 35% of those adults are obese (Miller III). It is recommended that adults get 150 minutes of physical activity every week to maintain a healthy lifestyle. When surveyed, most adults say that the reason they lack physical activity is because they do not have time. This is the first benefit of functionalShow MoreRelatedParkinson s Disease : The Second Most Common Neurodegenerative Disorder1495 Words   |  6 Pagesbarely trumps Parkinson’s by a small margin. The first article studied the effectiveness of two different exercise programs against a home-based control group with people in the early to mid stages of Parkinson’s. The study was a randomized control trial and lasted for 16 months and compared: flexibility/balance/function exercises (FBF), supervised aerobic e xercises (AE), and home-based exercises (control). The primary outcomes focused on physical function, balance, and walking economy. A few secondaryRead MoreThe Effect Of Aerobic Exercise On Patients With Chronic Heart Failure1696 Words   |  7 PagesLiterature review; The effect of aerobic exercise on VO2 max in patients with chronic heart failure. Patients suffering from chronic heart failure (CHF) often suffer from a decreased aerobic exercise capacity and exercise intolerance, which leads to a progressive deterioration in functional capacity (Belardinelli et al. 1999). This review will focus on four controlled clinical studies which have examined the effect of exercise training on VO2 max in patients with CHF. Coats et al. (1992) comparedRead MoreThe Benefits of Strength Training1449 Words   |  6 PagesThe benefits of strength training not only include increased physical strength, but the ability to negate or control certain diseases while improving conditions associated with aging. Studies have shown that initial increases in strength seen in the beginning stages of strength training programs are largely due to neural factors, even though, the process responsible for muscle growth is evident in early weeks of training. Research shows that different types of neural adaptations like enhanced coordinationRead Moreâ€Å"Physical Activity Is Defined As Any Body Movement That1598 Words   |  7 Pagesindividual must willingly put up with the strain and difficulty of actually engaging in exercise and physical activity regularly to reap the benefits. This can be hard for those at an older age due to age-associated changes. However in today’s society, we are aware that physical activity comes with a multitude of benefits, but the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle overpowers a lifestyle that includes regular exercise. Physical inactivity can be seen in many age groups, but â€Å"elderly people are even lessRead MoreWhat Is 22 Random Control Trials For Patient s With Chemotherapy And Treatment?1000 Words   |  4 Pagesundergoing chemotherapy or radiation from a sample size ranging from 20 to 450 participants. Within the aerobic fitness pool, aerobic capacity improved significantly. These trials were reported from walking programs to supervised sessions including aerobic, resistance, and flexibility activities. In terms of a psychological approach, the trials also used anxiety levels as a factor in their exercise plans. Out of five trials, three demonstrated positive effects, while two showed no statistical significanceRead MoreEffects Of Cardiac Rehabilitation On The United States Essay1953 Words   |  8 Pagesstatus. The goal of CR is to reduce the risk of repeat cardiac events, improve cardiovascular health, and reduce all-cause mortality with the use of evidence-based guidelines (Lawler, Filion, Eisenberg, 2011; Lobelo, Stoutenberg, Hutber, 2014). Exercise therapy is a key factor to programming. Effective training protocol th at elicits a high rate of compliance will produce positive outcomes. Although moderate intensity continuous training has been the main training regimen recommended in cardiacRead MoreThe Use Of Physical Exercise For Cancer Patients2675 Words   |  11 Pageslevels in women after they receive the diagnosis of breast cancer.2 TOPIC OF INTEREST There is sufficient evidence supporting the use of physical exercise as a central element of rehabilitation for many chronic diseases.1 The effectiveness of implementing an exercise program with cancer patients is widely researched. Many studies note that any form of exercise performed has a proven effect to improve both physical and psychological effects associated with patients receiving chemotherapy or radiationRead MoreCardiovascular Disease ( Cvd )1682 Words   |  7 Pageseven lead to death. Exercise is a great way to help people with cardiovascular disease as well as help with prevention for those who don’t. Although exercise is recommended, many individuals do not participate in it. My population will specifically target adults with cardiovascular disease and the benefits of exercise as well as the effects of sedentary lifestyles and how they can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Exercising with moderate intensity can benefits adults in many waysRead MoreThe Importance of a Warm-Up Preceding Exercise Essay1216 Words   |  5 PagesABSTRACT: Pre-exercise warm-up is a very important factor for individuals everywhere to understand. Many believe that the warm-up idea is a false hope in preventing injuries however this is false. Warming up the muscles before exercise helps warm up tissues and enzymes that are required for muscle recruitment and in turn allow the muscle to stretch further and help prevent possible injuries on muscles. When designing exercise programs, many factors and variables need to be considered beforeRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Mcardle s Syndrome988 Words   |  4 Pages(Haller). Some of these symptoms include rapid fatigue, myalgia, and muscle cramps in exercising muscles. These symptoms usually occur during the first 10 minutes of exercise. Muscle cramps are one of the major signs of McArdle s Syndrome. To prevent these muscle cramps, one should avoid high intensity and maximal aerobic exercise. Muscle weakness occurs in 25% of people diagnosed with McArdle s Syndrome and is more likely to involve proximal muscles and people over the age of 40. About half of

Service Marketing Logic of Marketing

Question: Briefly, describe the key characteristics of the target market for each of your services. Identify the key service attributes that you believe consumers of each of your two chosen services would need to evaluate as part of their multi-attribute consumer choice set for each service. What are the Search, Experience and Credence attributes that consumers will need to consider in their evaluation of the choices? Identify and describe the key types of perceived risks that consumers may experience in purchasing and using the services. (Consider displaying in a table). Consider the extended marketing mix elements of people, process and physical environment that are inherent components of service delivery. How would you potentially offset (in the case of the 'nasty services') or capitalise on (for the 'nice services') the key Search, Experience and Credence Attributes in relation to people, process and service environment management and design? Answer: Introduction The following report is prepared as a comparative analysis between nasty services and nice services. Education is chosen from nice services, while dentist is chosen from nasty services. A concise study is made on the target market of the service sectors, while search, experience and credence attributes are studied of both the service sector. A comparative study of the perceived risks of both the service sector is studied and recommendations are made on handling and improving the risk involved in the service sectors. Key Characteristics of target market of the services: Nice Services Education Demographics The target market of the education sector is primarily children and youth that range from the age of 4- 30. The target market of education sectors are children who undertaking primary education and higher level education.. The demographic pattern in the education sector ranges equally with male and female candidates pursuing the education dreams. The education sector includes people belonging different income earning groups. Psychographics The target market of education sector has a multicultural environment. The users of the service have different lifestyles, culture and diversity can be noticed in the respective field. Geographic location The education sector in Australia attracts students from different countries and as such the target market of this service is diverse and wide. Benefits The target market of the education sector has a common need, which is to pursue their educational goals and dreams, which it can utilize in achieving their dreams and in the pursuit of attractive jobs. Nasty Service Dentist Demographics The users of this service are people belonging to different age groups and are equally distributed among male and females. The target market includes people belonging to different income earning groups. Psychographics The psychographics of the target market of this service are also multicultural. It can be seen that people having different lifestyle are the target market of this service area and diversity can be noticed in the psychographic aspect of the service sector. Geographic location The target market of the dentist service is majorly local people belonging to the specific country and in general the target market of the dentist service is the local people. Benefits One can notice that the common need of this service is medical attention. The target market of this service seeks medical attention for adverse condition regarding tooth and gums. Evaluation of key service attributes of the chosen services by consumers Nice Services Education Search The customers before applying to education service would preferably first evaluate their requirements and compare it with the facilities provided by an educational institute. The customers have to first evaluate if their requirements matches with the education facilities provided by the educational institute. The price and the educational fee of a respective institute are evaluated by a customer by a student before applying to an institute (Chaston, 2014). Experience The customers of the education sector will apply to the education services based on the past experiences of the customers of a respective institute and will use their past experience in applying to the consumption of such services (Kristensson, 2013) Credence Customers during the evaluation of their evaluation of their choice regarding education services will depend on the image and reputation of the institute. It will see the years of goodwill that the respective institute holds. The campus image and the expertise and qualification level of the educators of the institute also plays an important role. Nasty Service Dentist Search In the initial search process of the dentist service, the consumer of such services will have to evaluate the different alternatives that exist in the dentist service. They will have to evaluate the price of such service and compare it with their income. This forms the attribute in the pre consumption stage of the service. Experience The consumers of such services will have to depend on the past experience of different users and evaluate their own past experiences regarding the past consumption of such services. This has to be evaluated in the light of the specific doctor or medical institute, where the consumers intend to go to consumer such services (Gummesson Grnroos, 2012). Credence A reputed doctor or an institute enjoys good reputation in the market, which the consumers evaluate in the process of choice of the service. The testimonials and word of mouth of other users of such services are factors that have deep impact on the choice of services. One can notice that there are ratings given to medical institutes that provide dentist services. Key Perceived Risks Perceived Risks Nasty Service- Dentist Nice Service- Education Functionality Risk The consumer of nasty service may face the risk of functionality risk and the risk of quality of risk during the purchase and usage of the service. The quality of the service as perceived might not be up to the standard of the user and the user. As such, the consumers might not be able to derive the utility of the service. If the dentist service does not provide the appropriate treatment and relief to the patient, then the user of such services can run the risk of functionality risk (Gummesson Grnroos, 2012). The consumer of nice service may face the risk of functionality risk. The students might not feel satisfied or might feel that the education standard is not up to the mark as per their perception. The quality of education service can only be evaluated from experience and therefore the students might suffer from such functionality test during the purchase and the usage of such services. The quality of the education service is one of the major risks that the users of such risk might face (Gummesson Grnroos, 2012). Financial Risk The user of the dentist service might suffer from the financial risk in the usage and purchase of dentist service. The medical cost in dentist service is reasonably high. Therefore, patients have to spend a considerable amount of money during the usage of the dentist service. If the dentist service does not provide the necessary benefit and utility to the patient, then the user of this service might consider his monetary resources to be wasted. Such situations pose the risk of financial risk to the users of such service. The students of the education service can suffer from financial risk. The cost of education in Australia is high and therefore students enrolling in education institutes have to spend significant amount of money during the admission process. The students have to pay fee during various stages of the education. If the education standard and quality is not up to the mark, then the student might consider their money to be wasted and exhausted. This is the financial risk existing in education service. Social risk Sometimes the users of dentist service might suffer from social risk if the doctor or the medical institution does not have high goodwill. In such circumstances, there are chances of social risk (Ndubisi, 2013). In education service, the social risk has some paramount influence. The brand image of the institution and the goodwill of the institute might have social status and also has a significant bearing on the value of the education qualification. A student from a reputed institute might have a better chance and scope of job opportunities compared to a student from a non reputed institute. Thus, the users of education users suffer from social risk (Ndubisi, 2013). Time Risk The users of dentist service might also face time risk. The users of dentist service to have to invest their resources and time. As such, if the quality of medical service is not sufficient, then the consumer might consider his time wasted in the process of such substandard service consumption (Kindstrm Kowalkowski, 2014). The users of education service might also face risk regarding time risk. If the student does not the sufficient and quality education, then the duration of the course of the education might not hold much importance and the student might lose out precious year involved in the course duration. As such, the student might be dissatisfied that he wasted the time studying in the institute, if does not matches the requirements and qualities (Kindstrm Kowalkowski, 2014). Managing Search, Experience and Credence Attributes in relation to people, process and Service environment management and design Nice Service People The people involved in the education service are the teachers, professors, lecturers and the administrators. The teachers need to be recruited and selected based on their high qualification, efficiency and skill. Further training and use of latest technology must be encouraged among the employees and faculties. This lend a lot of benefit in terms of search attributes as different subjects and specialization can be covered in the institute and makes an institute a comprehensive place for the service, which could meet the different requirements of students. Better faculties also lend much benefit to experience attribute as better faculties and employees in an education service will tend to provide maximum benefit and satisfaction of students and this will assist students to provide positive feedback to customers seeking service in a particular institution (Ndubisi, 2013). It will also benefit in the credence attribute as the skill and qualifications of the faculties and employees are t he major source of goodwill and brand image of an institution, which influence customers. Process The process of how an institute functions also have a significant impact on the service of an institute. The process of education institute can be improvised by improving the information system, amending the policies and the rules of the institution. The fee structure can be restructured also to suit the requirements of different users belonging to different income groups. This will have significant impact on the search attributes of the institute as the fee structure will allow many more students to enroll to the institute. The policies and rules of the institute will also gather more students. The improvement in the process and workings of the organizations will create a positive response from the past students of the institute, which will be useful in the reference process and it affects the experience attributes (Chaston, 2014). The credence attribute as the improvement in the process reflects on the efficiency of the institute and it will lend more credibility to the institute. Physical environment The physical environment of an institute needs to be remodeled, restructured and should be made to look attractive. The possibility of grounds of danger zones in the physical environment of the institute should be eliminated. This will attract the student during the search process as an attractive setting is pleasing to the students and it attracts. The presence of a safe, attractive and convenient physical environment will cause satisfaction among employees, which again benefits in the experience attributes. The presence of an outstanding physical environment will lend more credibility and brand value to the educational institute. This will lend more utility in the discharge of service (Kristensson, 2013). For example, the presence of library with access to different variety of books benefits an educational institute. Nasty Service People The employees lacking efficiency should be eliminated and the doctors with higher skill and expertise should be inducted in the hospitals and private clinics to discharge better dentist service. The scope of potential red flags regarding the skills and efficiency needs to be evaluated, so that people get more satisfaction and this will lead to more benefit in the experience attributes with positive feedback and also elimination of loopholes in terms of skill and negligence on the part of employees and doctors also lend more credibility to the institute. Doctors with more skill and expertise also benefit in the search attribute (Kindstrm Kowalkowski, 2014). Process The institute can amend the policies and the operational structure of the service. Better systems can be induced to improve the process. The testing and analysis process can be upgraded with latest technology and this will benefit the service with search attributes, create more satisfaction among employees and it will benefit the institute with experience attributes as users will be referred and the user with a past experience with the service can avail to it again. It also creates goodwill and positive image and it will contribute t credence attributes (Gummesson Grnroos, 2012). Physical environment The physical environment can be restructured and improved by making better waiting rooms and proper interiors and safe environment for discharge of services. It supplies benefit to the search, experience and credence attributes. Such appropriate physical environment will lend goodwill and positive image of the institute and also create positive feedbacks leading to experience attribute (Ndubisi, 2013). Recommendations to alleviate the perceived risks, before, during and after the service Experience Nasty Service- Dentist Better doctors and medical doctors should be recruited based on their skill and expertise level in order to discharge high quality service to patients. Better systems and medical equipments need to be inducted in the sector, to improve the quality of the service of the service. Continuous research and development process needs to be carried out to improve the loopholes observed in the process and the skill of medical workers. Evaluation of the feedbacks and grievances need to analyzed and implemented with remedial action to offset the adverse risk factors. Nice Service- Education More qualified and skilled educators need to be employed in the education service and doctors need to upgrade their knowledge to meet the requirements of the students. Better process and use of latest technologies need to be utilized in imparting education to students so that the students benefit from the education system. The improvisation of libraries and resources in the education system need to be carried out to make sure that the student benefit from the education system. Conclusion On concluding the report, it can be observed that the nasty and nice service differ on the perception of customers. The target markets of both the service sections have distinct features and have different specification in the search, experience and credence areas. The presence of perceived risks in the form of functionality, financial, social risk and time risk exist in the service sector. The marketing mix of the service sectors in the form of people, process and physical environment are analyzed and recommendations provided to capitalize and offset the attributes show that the amendments are needed in the skill and expertise of the professionals and the improvement of the procedures of discharge of the system. Reference list Lusch, R. F., Vargo, S. L. (2014).The service-dominant logic of marketing: Dialog, debate, and directions. Routledge. Wilson, A., Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., Gremler, D. D. (2012).Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm(No. 2nd Eu). McGraw Hill. Gummesson, E., Grnroos, C. (2012). The emergence of the new service marketing: Nordic School perspectives.Journal of Service Management,23(4), 479-497. Spohrer, J., Kwan, S. K., Fisk, R. P. (2014). Marketing: A Service Science and Arts Perspective,.Handbook of Service Marketing Research, 489-526. Ndubisi, N. O. (2013). Role of gender in conflict handling in the context of outsourcing service marketing.Psychology Marketing,30(1), 26-35. Chaston, I. (2014).Small business marketing. Palgrave Macmillan. Kristensson, P. (2013). Service marketing-Ahead of its times, industry and mainstream marketing. Kindstrm, D., Kowalkowski, C. (2014). Editorial: Service innovation in business-to-business firms.Journal of Business Industrial Marketing,29(2). Kushwaha, G. S., Agrawal, S. R. (2015). An Indian customer surrounding 7PÃâ€" ³ s of service marketing.Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,22, 85-95. Schultz, D., Patti, C. H., Kitchen, P. J. (2013).The evolution of integrated marketing communications: The customer-driven marketplace. Routledge. Sharma, D. K. (2016). Strategic Marketing in Financial Instiutions. Guiffrida, A. L., Messina, M. J. (2015). Quality Control Techniques in Services Marketing. InProceedings of the 1988 International Conference of Services Marketing(pp. 223-234). Springer International Publishing. Julian, A., Julian, S., Robertson, J., Lin, D. (2014).U.S. Patent No. 8,712,824. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Grnroos, C., Gummerus, J. (2014). The service revolution and its marketing implications: service logic vs service-dominant logic.Managing Service Quality,24(3), 206-229. Huotari, K., Hamari, J. (2012, October). Defining gamification: a service marketing perspective. InProceeding of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference(pp. 17-22). ACM.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

The Islam Religion Essay Research Paper Islam free essay sample

The Islam Religion Essay, Research Paper Islam is a faith that is still really much alive today. A adult male named Mohammed offered Arabs the faith of Islam. Mohammed was born in approximately 570 A.D. in Mecca. He became known for honestness and good concern sense when he was a adolescent. He married a adult female by the name of Khadija who was a widow that ran her ain concern. He frequently meditated in a cave outside Mecca and rejected the many Gods of the tribal faith. At the age of 40 he believed he saw the angel Gabriel. He said Gabriel ordered him to, ? Recite in the name of thy Lord! ? He so offered the Arabs the faith of Islam, which is monotheistic. Islam means, ? resignation to Allah? in Arabic. The followings of Islam are called Muslims, which means? those who submit to God? s will? . The Islam faith has a holy book called the Koran. We will write a custom essay sample on The Islam Religion Essay Research Paper Islam or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Muslims believe it contains the word of God as it was revealed to Mohammed. They believe that the Koran should non be changed or questioned? even interlingual renditions from Arabic. The Muslims position God as the swayer of Eden and Earth? like Christianity and Judaism. They believe God is almighty, merciful, and merely. The have no priests, because they believe they can pass on straight with God. They believe Mohammed was the last and greatest of the Prophetss, and do non believe Jesus and the Hebrew Prophetss are couriers of God. They besides do non idolize Mohammed as a God. All Muslims have five spiritual responsibilities ( Five Pillars of Islam ) : 1. They must accept and reiterate: ? There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophesier? ( statement of religion ) . 2. They must confront the holy metropolis of Mecca and pray at least 5 times a twenty-four hours. 3. They have the responsibility to be generous to the hapless. 4. They must fast during Ramadan? the 9th month in the Muslim calendar. 5. They must do one pilgrims journey to the holy metropolis of Mecca, unless they are non physically and non financially able. In 622 A.D. Mohammed left Mecca and moved to Medina. The move is now known as the Hegira? which means? the breakage of former ties? . In 630 A.D. Mecca surrendered to the Muslims. Mohammed died 2 old ages subsequently in 632 A.D. Mohammed? s friend Abu Bakr became leader after he died. The Muslims have many major cultural accomplishments. They converted people ( other than Christians and Jewish ) to the Islam faith, and introduced Arabian Equus caballuss, new nutrients, and the Arabic linguistic communication to Western Europe. They influenced other civilizations by their accomplishments, besides. Some of their cultural accomplishments are in doctrine, mathematics, scientific discipline, engineering, Farming, medical specialty, literature, architecture, and art. Those are the things we learn in school today and they contributed some of it. In farming they learned how to maintain the dirt fertile, and brought Equus caballuss ( and new nutrient ) to Europe. In medical specialty they at one clip became the most adept and best-trained physicians. They discovered new medical specialties and anaesthetics that we still use today. In art, they made beautiful pictures, rugs, blades, and illumination pictures. They made fantastic architectural plants inside mosques, and mosa ics besides. A batch of the things we see could hold been created or enhanced by the Muslims, if we merely took the clip to believe about it. ? Textbook: Houghton Mifflin History of the World Copyright: 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company Pages 197-207 ? Website: The Islamic Foundation of Greater St. Louis- An Introduction to Islam hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ifgstl.org/html/basics/basicsnf.htm ? Website: Imuslim- Your Beginning for Islam on the Net hypertext transfer protocol: //www.imuslim.com ? Website: Al-Islam hypertext transfer protocol: //www.al-islam.com ? Website: Unknown hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mrdowling.com/605-islam.html

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The Hardest ACT Reading Questions Ever

The Hardest ACT Reading Questions Ever SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you’re aiming for a top score on the ACT Reading section, you probably want to know what the hardest questions look like so you’re prepared for everything the test throws at you. In this article, I’ll walk you through the answers to some of the toughest questions I’ve seen on the ACT Reading section. Why exactly are they so hard? How do you tackle them? How well will you do? Challenge yourself for that top score. Detail Questions Detail Questions will ask you to paraphrase or analyze a specific part of the passage.These questions can be difficult because they require a strong understanding of the author's specfic viewpoint and a high level of reading comprehension. Here’s one of the hardest detail questions about the narrator’s point of view that I’ve come across on the ACT: In the last paragraph, a comparison is made between "diminished excellence" and "flawed competence." From the narrator's point of view, the conditions are different because the one is: F. a source of sorrow while the other is a source of pride.G. based in the family while the other is based in the self.H. inherent in the environment while the other is inherent in the individual.J. a sign that the individual can improve the world while the other is a sign that the individual can't. This is the comparison the question refers to: We plan makers are accustomed to things turning out not-quite-as-good-as-we-had-in-mind. Our world view includes the â€Å"diminished excellence† component. Diminished excellence is a condition of the world and therefore never an occasion for sorrow, whereas flawed competence comes out of character and therefore is frequently the reason for the bowed head, the furrowed brow. How do we go about solving a question like this? First, we need to establish what the narrator is saying about the difference between diminished excellence and flawed competence. What is diminished excellence, according to the passage? It’s a â€Å"condition of the world† and â€Å"never an occasion for sorrow†.Diminished excellence is not something to be sad about because it’s out of our control and exists naturally in the world. Ok, how about flawed competence? In contrast, flawed competence â€Å"comes out of character† and is a reason for â€Å"the bowed head†.Flawed competence is a part of the individual, not an immutable condition of the world, so it can be cause for distress. Ok, we know the difference. Now let’s examine the answer choices. Choice F:a source of sorrow while the other is a source of pride Well, one of them is a source of some degree of sorrow (flawed competence), but neither is a source of pride, so this doesn’t work. Nope, this is an irrelevant answer! Choice G:based in the family while the other is based in the self Again, this is sort of half-correct in that flawed competence is based in the self. However, diminished excellence is not based in the family - it’s based in the world at large. Nothing in this answer choice describes diminished excellence. Cross this one out too! Choice H:inherent in the environment while the other is inherent in the individual This seems likely.Diminished excellence is described as a â€Å"condition of the world†, so it’s inherent in the environment.Flawed competence â€Å"comes out of character†, so it’s inherent in the individual. Keep this one! Choice J:a sign that the individual can improve the world while the other is a sign that the individual can’t This is a confusing answer choice, because we don’t see either of the conditions described as signs of anything in the passage.Diminished excellence could be interpreted as a sign that the individual can’t improve the world, but flawed competence certainly isn’t any kind of sign that an individual CAN improve it. This answer is a weird concept jumble - get rid of it! Choice H is our answer! This question was tough because it asked us to consider and compare two complicated ideas in the passage.We had to grapple with abstract concepts as well as be very specific with our answer choice. You can see, however, that when we closely examine the direct evidence and definitions provided, it becomes very clear which answers should be eliminated. If you come across unfamiliar concepts in the passage that you need to understand to answer a question, sometimes it's helpful to write down their definitions in a simpler form next to the question so you can stay focused. Sometimes you have to look at things from the author's point of view on the ACT, even if you can tell he's someone who wears ugly glasses and stares off into the sunset wondering why he wasted the best years of his life. Development and Function Questions Development and function questions ask about the structure of the reading passage and how certain lines or paragraphs contribute to its meaning.These questions can be difficult because you have to have a strong understanding of the argument presented in the passage and how each piece of the passage fits into that argument. Here’s one of the hardest ACT questions I’ve seen in this category: The author uses the events listed in lines 77-79 primarily to: F. show how weather-related disasters threatened the survival of Western civilization.G. criticize subsistence-level agriculture as being too dependent on the weather.H. illustrate how environmental determinism operated in the Little Ice Age.J. suggest the part that climate shifts may have had in producing modern Europe. Here are is the paragraph we need to reference: Consider, for instance, the food crises that engulfed Europe during the Little Ice Age - the great hunger of 1315 to 1319, the food dearths of 1741, and 1816, "the year without a summer" - to mention only a few. These crises in themselves did not threaten the continued existence of Western civilization, but they surely played an important role in the formation of modern Europe. Some of these crises resulted from climactic shifts, others from human ineptitude or disastrous economic or political policy; many from a combination of all three. Environmental determinism may be intellectually bankrupt, but climate change is the ignored player on the historical stage. I have the whole paragraph copied here, rather than just the lines in the question, because it’s necessary to read beyond the lines to get the right answer. That’s part of what makes this question difficult. All right - how do we solve this? First, let's figure out what the question is asking. What is the primary purpose of lines 77-79?It’s important not to miss the world "primary" in this question because some of the answer choices are tricky.They might support the author’s point, but they’re not her primary reason for using those lines. Now let’s go through the answer choices and see which one works. Choice F:show how weather-related disasters threatened the survival of Western civilization If you just read the lines mentioned in the question, you might think this answer was plausible.This is why it’s important to make sure to read the whole paragraph surrounding the lines to get the context.In the next sentence, the author specifically says these crises â€Å"did not threaten the continued existence of Western civilization†. This is an opposite answer - get rid of it! Choice G:criticize subsistence-level agriculture as being too dependent on the weather Hmm - it does seem based on these lines that subsistence-level agriculture was too dependent on the weather.But was that the primary point the author was trying to make by citing these crises?No, this answer misses the larger point even if it makes sense on a factual level. Eliminate it! Choice H:illustrate how environmental determinism operated in the Little Ice Age This answer choice would be easier to understand if you had the whole passage to look at, but the Little Ice Age is a time period of climate instability that was described earlier in the passage.These crises did occur during that time period, so that part makes sense. But is the author trying to support environmental determinism?She says it’s â€Å"intellectually bankrupt† at the end of the paragraph. This answer is slightly off - cross it out! Choice J:suggest the part that climate shifts might have had in producing modern Europe This seems right.The paragraph says the crises â€Å"surely played an important role in the formation of modern Europe†, so that's a pretty close paraphrase of this answer choice. This one’s a winner! Choice J is our answer! You’ll notice that the correct answer choice was the last one, so this question could be particularly difficult if you were rushing on the test.Some of the other choices also seem partially right at first glance. That’s why reading carefully and making sure every part of an answer makes sense is so important. That guy on the right is SO done with everyone he knows dying from malnutrition. Inference Questions Perhaps the most difficult ACT Reading questions are those that ask you to make inferences about the passage.This requires more developed extended reasoning skills and a deep understanding of the points being made by the author. Meaning in context questions are a subset of inference questions. They will ask you to look at specific lines in a passage to infer and then paraphrase their meaning. Here is an example of a very difficult meaning in context question on the ACT: Which of the following statements best paraphrases lines 5-8? A. The imagination lacks value and should be ignored in favor of paying attention to the actual world.B. Reason can enhance the imagination but at the expense of experience in the actual world.C. Rather than become isolated, the imagination should connect to the actual world at least occasionally.D. Reason, not the imagination, is the best way to appreciate and enrich the actual world. Here are the lines we’ll need to reference: A mind risks real ignorance for the sometimes paltry prize of an imagination enriched. The trick of reason is to get the imagination to seize the actual world - if only from time to time. This question is so difficult because the lines it references deal with a somewhat confusing and high-level concept. The answer choices also combine a lot of different concepts that are included in the lines but don't necessarily answer the question correctly. Ok, time to solve this. First, let’s try and understand what the lines are saying. What does the first sentence mean? A mind risks real ignorance for the sometimes paltry prize of an imagination enriched. It seems like it's saying that people often gain an enriched imagination at the expense of their knowledge of the real world.â€Å"Real ignorance† is the price they pay for an â€Å"imagination enriched†. Ok, how about the second sentence? The trick of reason is to get the imagination to seize the actual world - if only from time to time. It's saying that in order to overcome the problem in the first sentence, you have to get your imagination to connect with or â€Å"seize† the real world sometimes. It seems like we have a pretty good understanding of the sentiment in the passage: imagination can make you lose touch with the real world if you don’t bridge the gap between the two sometimes. Now let's go through the answer choices. Choice A:The imagination lacks value and should be ignored in favor of paying attention to the actual world. Hmm this sounds pretty extreme. Even though the author does say that you shouldn’t totally lose yourself in imagination, there’s no mention of ignoring it.She says imagination should â€Å"seize the actual world†, so the two are compatible. Imagination doesn’t â€Å"lack value†. This answer is incorrect! Choice B:Reason can enhance the imagination but at the expense of experience in the actual world. This is definitely an opposite answer. How can reason enhance your imagination if you are sacrificing real world experience?The author’s point is that reason should allow you to enhance your imagination by occasionally putting imagination in the context of your experiences in the real world. Eliminate this one! Choice C:Rather than become isolated, the imagination should connect to the actual world at least occasionally. Looking promising. The author definitely says that the imagination shouldn’t be isolated from the real world or the imaginer â€Å"risks real ignorance†.She also says imagination should â€Å"seize the actual world - if only from time to time†. This seems synonymous with connecting â€Å"to the actual world at least occasionally†. Keep this one! Choice D:Reason, not the imagination, is the best way to appreciate and enrich the real world. This is a plausible interpretation of what the author says, but it’s still not correct.It seems like she does believe that imagination can cause you to lose touch with the real world, so it might not be the best way to appreciate or enrich the real world.However, that’s not the point specifically being made in these sentences. Eliminate this one! Choice C is our answer! These answer choices were very difficult because almost all of them included a plausible element, even though only one was close enough to the meaning of the lines to answer the question correctly.This is common with inference or meaning in context questions, which is why reading the question carefully and being ruthless about eliminating answers that aren’t a perfect match is so crucial! What is the "actual world" anyway? How do we know our imaginations aren't, like, just as real? Duuuude. Review The hardest questions on the ACT Reading section ask you to analyze abstract concepts and paraphrase complex viewpoints expressed in passages. Often the answer choices provided will seem plausible or provide a statement that is true but does not directly answer the question being asked. No matter how difficult or confusing a question seems, you can always find the answer by referring to direct evidence from the passage.If you read carefully and don’t stray from the information you are given, you will get all of these questions right every time! What's Next? Read these articles for tips on how to approach ACT Reading passages and to learn more about the four types of passages you'll see on the test. Do you keep running out of time on the ACT Reading section? Learn about how to avoid the time crunch. If you're already achieving high scores on the Reading section and want to know how you can take it to the next level, check out our article on how to get a 36 on ACT Reading. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Reading lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Saturday, February 29, 2020

A Study Of Lyme Disease In New

Jersey Essay, Research Paper Introduction Merely by populating in the universe, human existences are susceptible to disease. Many diseases # 8212 ; for illustration, grippe and TB # 8212 ; are spread when bacteriums or viruses pass from one individual to another. Other diseases are acquired genetically from one? s parents, such as cystic fibrosis. Some diseases, such as bosom disease and osteoporosis, develop as worlds age. Others worlds get from the environment ; illustrations are lead toxic condition and tegument malignant neoplastic disease due to exposure to the Sun. Finally, there are diseases that can be transmitted from animate beings to worlds. Lyme disease is one such disease. Cases of Lyme disease, which is transmitted to worlds and pets by the bite of a tick, are steadily increasing in countries such as the Northeast part of the United States. At present, there is no vaccinum for worlds ; the best manner to forestall Lyme disease is to take safeguards against being bitten by a tick and leting the tick to stay af filiated to the tegument long plenty for the infection to be transmitted. History The narrative of Lyme disease in the United States began in 1975, when two female parents, Polly Murray and Judith Mensch, alarmed by the great figure of instances of joint redness in the their communities of Lyme and Ease Haddam, Connecticut, contacted public wellness governments ( 7:5 ) . The wellness section contacted Allen Steere and his co-workers at Yale University, in New Haven. Steere believed the eruption may supply a hint about the infective agent or environmental toxin that was responsible for arthritis ( 2:26 ) . One early observation made by Steere was an association between the arthritis and a anterior tegument roseola. A connexion was so made between this roseola and a similar 1 called erythema migrans, which comes from the bite of the sheep tick, Ixodes Ricinus and is often found in northern Europe ( 7:5 ) . After field surveies and patient studies were carried out the research workers released three indispensable findings which subsequently led to the find of the infective agent. First, the disease was seasonal, happening most normally in the summer and much less so in the center of the winter. In geographic countries such as Connecticut, these findings suggest that the virus was either a summer virus or an infection carried by and insect or a tick ( 7:35 ) . Second, the disease did non distribute from one individual in a household to another. Summer viruses were normally spread from individual to individual, particularly those populating in the same family. When a summer virus was eliminated, the focal point shifted to the engagement of arthropods ( 7:37 ) . Third, the disease was much more prevalent on one side of the Connecticut River than the other. Since the Connecticut River bisects the province, this became an of import factor in happening the cause of the disease. The research workers found a good correlativity with the frequence of a certain tick now named Ixodes scapularis. When furthered questioned, the affected people remembered being old bitten by a tick ( 2:27 ) . At foremost, the infective agent bring forthing Lyme disease was thought to hold been either a virus, protozoon, Fungis, or bacteriums. Among the possible agents, bacterium was the highest on the list. European doctors had been handling patients with medical specialties that were effectual against bacteriums. However, these findings were non originally accepted in the United States. It was merely after some of the patients in Steere? s survey were successfully treated with antibiotics, which are effectual against bacteriums, but non against viruses, protozoon, or Fungis, that bacterium was determined to be the infective agent ( 14:1015 ) . The specific bacterium was found by Willy Burgdorfer, an expert on a assortment of tick-borne diseases. While working at Montana? s Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Burgdorfer received a cargo of ticks from New York. After looking at the contents of the ticks through a microscope, Burgdorfer found a wavy signifier of a spirochaete that had neer been seen in the Ixodes group of ticks before. After finding that the same spirochaetes were present in ticks taken from Long Island and New Jersey, the freshly named Borrelia burgdorferi was confirmed as the bacterium that caused Lyme disease ( 1:47 ) . THE VECTOR The tick that transmits Lyme disease is called Ixodes scapularis. In the northeasterly and north-central United States it is frequently called the? cervid tick? because it is found so often on cervid. The southern signifier of I. scapularis is normally called the? black legged tick. ? The southern signifier of the species poses less of a menace of infection. Fewer of the southern ticks are infected and they tend to feed on other carnal hosts instead than worlds ( 2:43 ) . The ticks that transmit Lyme disease by and large live about two old ages. I. scapularis larvae, which are non much larger than the period at the terminal of this sentence, hatch in the summer from eggs laid by the grownup female that spring. They normally feed on a field mouse or other gnawer host that summer and into the early autumn. The larvae so alteration into nymphs the first twelvemonth ; these nymphs base on balls through the winter without feeding. the undermentioned spring and summer the nymphs provender on a gnawer or other little animate being. At least three out of four Lyme disease instances in the United States are from the bite of a nymphal tick that occurs sometime between May and August. Most of the bites go unnoticed because the nymphs are so little # 8211 ; about the size of a poppy seed ( 2:45 ) . In the 2nd twelvemonth, the nymph alterations to an grownup after feeding. The larger ticks, particularly the females, are more likely to be noticed by people. I. scapularis grownups bite cervid and other big mammals, such as worlds. The grownups feed subsequently in the twelvemonth than the nymphs and larvae and may stay active even as temperature bead to merely above nothing in the late autumn. Lyme disease infection happening in the autumn, particularly in the nor-east, can normally be attributed to the bite of an grownup ( 2:45-46 ) . Reservoir The Lyme disease spirochaetes can stay active and even multiply inside a tick? s organic structure, but rarely are they passed from an grownup female to her offspring. In order for the spirochaetes to distribute in nature, an septic tick must feed on another animate being, thereby go throughing the spirochaete from that animate being to other feeding ticks. Many types of mammals and birds are capable of hosting the bacterium and of go throughing it on to other ticks, therefore finishing the vector-reservoir-vector rhythm. Because about 99 per centum of the larvae of I. scapularis do non transport the bacteriums even if their grownup female parent of male parent did, the larvae must get the bacteriums by feeding on an septic host. In the instance of cervid ticks this host is normally a wild field mouse, called Peromyscus leucopus. In some parts more than half the mice are infected with Lyme disease bacteriums, therefore supplying a uninterrupted reservoir of the spirochaetes for many ticks. In bad countries for Lyme disease, such as New Jersey, the opportunities that a larva will go septic is as least one in four ( 13:36 ) . Symptom The first mark of the disease in 60 to 80 per centum of the instances is a roseola # 8211 ; a ruddy splodge or bull? s oculus form, frequently no more than 2 1/2 inches across. If left untreated it may, in two hebdomads to a month, expand to four times that size. The roseola does non ever occur at the site of the bite ( 11:9 ) . Often it is found at the axilla, inguen, or the dorsum of the articulatio genus. However, in many instances of Lyme disease no roseola occurs ; therefore it may be necessary to look at other factors before doing a diagnosing ( 16:41 ) . Other common symptoms include icinesss, febrility, weariness, and other flu-like symptoms ( 1:47 ) . If left untreated, the disease spreads to other P humanistic disciplines of the organic structure, and frequently consequences in more joint, tendon and musculus hurting, partial facial palsy, and bosom palpitations ( 8:11 ) . Chronic symptoms can develop if the disease goes untreated for months or old ages, and leads to severe arthritis and neurological jobs ( 5:29 ) . Diagnosis The best manner to get at or except a diagnosing of Lyme disease is to analyze three facets of the patient. The first is to find if the patient exhibits any of the above symptoms. The 2nd is discover whether or non the patient is at a high hazard of undertaking the disease. This factor takes into history the environment in which the patient lives, works, or enjoys his recreational activities. It may besides include whether or non the patient has a pet that may hold brought the ticks into the house ( 16:41 ) . The 3rd factor to see before naming Lyme disease is to execute research lab trials. The Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease recommends a two-test attack to find an active disease or a old infection. A doctor should execute a sensitive enzyme immunochemical assay ( EIA ) or immunofluorescent check ( IFA ) . If a patient trials positive on an EIA or IFA so the doctor should follow up with a standardised Western immunoblot ( 15:937 ) . Treatment In its early phases Lyme disease can easy be treated. Clinical surveies have shown that a 10 twenty-four hours to three hebdomad class of antibiotics is about 95 percent effectual in extinguishing the disease ( 14:1015 ) . Amoxicillin and Vibramycin are the two most prescribed antibiotics. They replaced the earlier interventions of penicillin and Achromycin because they are more easy absorbed by the enteric piece of land and require less frequent dosing ( 9:1 ) . Erythromycin, which is less effectual than penicillin or Achromycin, is now merely used in the intervention of immature kids, pregnant or nursing adult females, and those people allergic to penicillins ( 2:166 ) . If left untreated and allowed to come on to a ulterior phase, Lyme disease may necessitate to be treated with endovenous antibiotics. The success rate at this phase drops significantly and frequently patients will go on to see chronic symptoms ( 2:167 ) . Prevention It is of import to be cognizant if you live in or are going to a high hazard country. Ticks thrive in wooded, shaggy, grassy home grounds, and peculiarly in shady and damp countries. Measures to forestall Lyme disease include have oning long arms and bloomerss when out-of-doorss, inserting bloomerss into socks, and utilizing repellants # 8211 ; permethrin ( sold as Permanoe ) on vesture, and diethyltoluamide ( DEET ) on exposed countries of tegument. The most of import agencies of bar is a complete review of the organic structure at the terminal of every twenty-four hours spent out-of-doorss. A tick must be attached to the organic structure for a lower limit of 24 hours in order to convey the disease ; hence if a tick is found upon review it is non excessively late to forestall the disease from being transmitted. If a tick is discovered embedded in the tegument it should be removed instantly by hold oning the organic structure with a brace of all right tipped pincers and drawing gen tly until the tick comes out ( 4:31 ) . Statistical ASPECTS In 1995 ( the last complete twelvemonth for which figures are available ) , there 11,603 instances of Lyme disease reported in the United States by 43 provinces and the District of Columbia. The overall incidence of the disease was 4.4 per 100,000 people. This was the 2nd highest one-year figure reported since the disease was first tracked in 1982, nevertheless it was an 11 % lessening from the 13, 043 instances reported in 1994 ( 10:274 ) . Despite the national lessening, the incidence of Lyme disease in New Jersey has increased steadily since 1992, from 688 instances to 1,704 in 1995 ( 6: T-3 ) . An overall incidence of 21.1 per 100,000 people was reported ( 10:274 ) . Hunterdon County leads the province and is 2nd among the 3,300 counties in the state in the figure of instances per 100,000 occupants. In 1995, Hunterdon reported 565 instances. Morris County was 2nd in the province coverage 232 instances ( 6: T-3 ) . FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE HIGH INCIDENCE OF LYME DISEASE IN NEW JERSEY The three chief factors lending to the incidence in New Jersey are the sum of cervid nowadays in the province, an increased interaction between people and cervid, and an addition in the figure of doctors naming and describing Lyme disease. The figure of cervid in New Jersey continues to turn every twelvemonth ( 17:41 ) . This population detonation means that there are more cervid for the ticks to feed on and infect. This straight relates to the addition in interaction between people and cervid. As people move into more wooded countries, they are more likely to come in contact with cervid and their home grounds. This provides an chance for the ticks to attach themselves to dress or be found in families ( 13:37 ) . The 3rd factor can be attributed to an addition in consciousness among physicians to name Lyme disease. After a significant sum of media attending given to Lyme disease in the late 1980? s and early 1990? s, physicians all of a sudden began naming the disease in more patients. As an consciousness of the symptoms and hazard factors of Lyme disease increased, doctors were better able to do a more accurate diagnosing. They were now naming Lyme disease in patients that had antecedently been untreated ( 3 ) . Decision It is inevitable that the instances of Lyme disease will go on to increase in New Jersey until more people become cognizant of the earnestness of the disease. In recent old ages, the media has been instrumental in supplying the public with pertinent information refering the symptoms and hazard factors involved in the disease. At present, there is no vaccinum protecting worlds against Lyme disease. The best manner to protect oneself against undertaking Lyme disease is to forestall a tick from holding the chance to convey the infection. 1. Accerrano, Anthony. ? Tick, tick. ? Sports Afield. Aug. 1996. 44-47. 2. Barbour, Alan G. , M.D. Lyme Disease. Baltimore: John? s Hopkins University Press, 1996. 3. Fernandez, Bob. ? New Jersey County Suffering from 2nd Highest Rate of Lyme Disease. ? Tribune News Service. 28 Aug. 1994. 4. Gubler, Diane J. , et Al. ? A Field Guide to Animal-borne Infections. ? Patient Care. 15 Oct. 1994. 23-37. 5. Hearn, Wayne. ? Lyme Disease Back With a Few New Ticks, Er, Tricks. ? American Medical News. 22 Jul. 1996. 29-30. 6. ? It? s Tick Time. ? The Record. 23 Jun. 1996. T-3. 7. Lang, Denise, and Derrick DeSilva, Jr. , M.D. Coping With Lyme Disease. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1993. 8. ? Lingering Lyme Disease. ? Science News. 7 Jan. 1995. 11. 9. ? Lyme Disease: Treatment Controversies Continue. ? Health Facts. Jul. 1995. 1-2. 10. ? Lyme Disease # 8212 ; United States, 1995. ? The Journal of the American Medial Association. 24 Jul. 1996. 274. 11. Miller, Sue. ? Lyme Disease Update. ? Country Journal. Jul.-Aug. 1994. 8. 12. Murray, Polly. The Widening Circle. New York: St. Martin? s Press, 1996. 13. Nelson, Peter. ? Deer Watch. ? National Wildlife. Oct.-Nov. 1994. 34-42. 14. Pfister, Hans- Walter, et Al. ? Lyme Borreliosis: Basic Science and Clinical Aspects. ? The Lancet. 23 Apr. 1994. 1013-1017. 15. ? Recommendations for trial public presentation and reading from the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease. ? The Journal of the American Medical Association. 27 Sept. 1995. 937. 16. Stewart, Kay B. ? A Quick Expression at Lyme Disease. ? Nursing. Aug. 1994. 41. 17. Sudo, Phil. ? The Bambi Boom. ? Scholastic Update. 16 Apr. 1993. 18.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Supply Chain Integration in the Food Industry Essay

Supply Chain Integration in the Food Industry - Essay Example My first action as the new CEO would be to implement an efficient consumer response (ECR) system. As one author notes, "ECR is an approach to supply chain management which...is a managerial approach that starts with consumer demand and then gears the whole of the supply chain to responding to that demand. It is a customer-driven, demand-pull product management system..." (Gillooley and Varley 42). This method makes particularly good business sense in the retail grocery environment because it is based on supplying products by allying all of the elements of the supply chain with customer purchasing patterns. Consider, for example, how this type of SCM system would increase efficiency during the holidays. Normal sales of large, frozen turkeys are generally low during the months of January through October, but spike over November and December. A supply chain which was based on the ECR model would be integrating suppliers, distributors, and in-store inventories to minimize costs and maxim ize what can only be considered as a diminishing profit margin, e.g., the closer to Thanksgiving it gets, the cheaper the price for the birds and the more competitive the market becomes. The alternatives to this integrated approach are either to run out of inventory and lose market share, or to over-stock and suffer a negative product age issue; neither of which are profitable nor efficient. Accordingly, the ECR would be my first move as the new CEO. My second strategic focus on using supply chain integration would focus on operation and information systems. Similarly to Mr. Johnston, I know that information systems efficiency and interoperability is an important area for an SCM. Proper use of technology to maximize efficiency is well worth the investment, as demonstrated by Wal-Mart in past case studies. One reason information systems are so vital is the operational support they provide and the speed and accuracy at which they provide it. This systems integration directly addresses issues like overstocking which, in many retail businesses is costly, but in a retail grocery setting can be prohibitively expensive. As Ketzenberg and Metters note, "although all major grocers use scanner technology at cash registers...[in most stores] stock ordering is still done manually by employees visually checking shelf sets" (31). It is for this reason that I think Mr. Johnston's investment in technology is astute; and I would do the exact same thing. As the information systems are integrated and the operational aspect of inventory tracking moves from visual unit counts to a more efficient and accurate SCM system, additional benefits will be gained; the ability to interface with the ECR system noted above will permit supply chain managers to monitor the relationship between quantities ordered and sold so that accurate forecasting can bring higher efficiency, lower costs, and greater customer satisfaction. The blending of a